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Red Square was established in the 15th Century, under the rule of Ivan III, and was originally called Trinity Square after the Trinity Cathedral, which used to stand on the site where St. Basil’s stands now. Sometime later the name ‘Krasnaya Ploschad’ became popular. The word ‘krasnaya’ is ambiguous. Originally meaning beautiful in old Russian, it only came to mean red in more modern times. Commonly-held assumptions then that the ‘Red’ in Red Square referred to Communism, blood spilt - or even the colour of the monuments - are in fact misplaced!

The Kremlin is Moscow's central architectural ensemble, the heart of Russia and symbol of her greatness. It is situated on the high bank of the Moscow River, at the mouth of the Neglinnaya (put into a conduit in the course of-sanitation work and the citycentre reconstruction, in 1816-20). This is the oldest part of Moscow, that as far back as the 11th century was the site of the Slaviansky town and its first manuscript reference dates from 1147. In the early 14th century Moscow became capital of the principality with the white-stone Kremlin developing into an impregnable fortress...